The industrial sewing thread used in garments must be durable enough to withstand the abrasion and needle heat that occur while sewing, garment finishing, stretching, and recovery during wear.
Abrasion is one aspect of wear and is the rubbing away of the component fibers and yarns of the fabric. Flex abrasion-In this case, rubbing is accompanied by flexing and bending.
Abrasion resistance refers to a thread’s resistance to abrasion assessed based on the visible changes in the appearance of the thread up to the point where it is completely destroyed. The abrasion resistance is measured through abrasive rubs that are necessary to destroy the thread. The resistance to abrasion is one of the most important characteristics when evaluating the performance behavior of a thread in the seam. This becomes much clearer when you think about all the abrasive stress that denim or children’s clothing must endure, for example.
The abrasion resistance of a thread is primarily determined by its raw material. In this aspect, synthetic threads are clearly superior to cotton threads. But the thread construction has also a high influence on the abrasion resistance (see the thread construction images for further info).
Four factors affecting abrasion resistance
- Fiber-type Nylon is generally considered to have the best abrasion resistance. Polyester and polypropylene also have good abrasion resistance. Blending either nylon or polyester with wool and cotton is found to increase their abrasion resistance. Viscose and acetates have the lowest abrasion resistance.
- Fiber properties: A fabric made up of longer fibers gives better abrasion resistance than short fibers because they are harder to remove from the yarn. For the same reason, filament yarns are more abrasion resistant than staple yarns made from the same fiber. Increasing fiber diameter up to a limit improves abrasion resistance.
- Yarn twist: An optimum amount of twist in a yarn gives the best abrasion resistance. At low-twist factors, fibers can easily be removed from the yarn so that it is gradually reduced in diameter. At high twist levels, the fibers are held more tightly but the yarn is stiffer so it is hard to abrade under pressure.
- Fabric structure: Fabrics with the crimp evenly distributed between warp and weft give the best wear because the damage is spread evenly between them.
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